Just one in 10 older people rely on public transport to get around, research on Ireland's ageing population has revealed.
The study found a third of free travel pass-holders in Greater Dublin use state-run bus and rail services, while the figure falls to 10pc in other towns and cities and to as low as 3pc in rural areas.
The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (Tilda) has warned of serious levels of dissatisfaction with public transport, with more than half of the over-50s surveyed rating the options in their area as poor or very poor.
Tilda principal investigator Professor Rose Anne Kenny said more older people will be driving in years to come but their patterns of transport use will also change.
"Greater numbers of people will rely on public transport or family and friends for getting around," she said.
"Consequently, as the population ages, we need to address the challenge of improved transport networks and services that meet the specific needs of older adults, especially in rural areas."