The past identities of James Bulger killer Jon Venables will remain secret after a High Court judge rejected a bid by the murdered toddler's father and uncle to have them revealed.
A life-long injunction imposed in 2001 has allowed Venables to live anonymously since his release from a life sentence for the kidnap, torture and murder of the two-year-old in 1993.
Lawyers for Ralph and Jimmy Bulger said certain details about the killer, including identities given to him up to 2017, were "common knowledge" and easily accessible online.
They asked the president of the High Court's Family Division, Andrew McFarlane, to vary the order so it would no longer protect this information.
In a ruling yesterday, the judge refused to alter the anon- ymity order, which he said was to protect the "uniquely notorious" Venables from "being put to death".
"There is a strong possibility, if not a probability, that if his identity were known he would be pursued, resulting in grave and possibly fatal consequences," he said.
"This is, therefore, a wholly exceptional case and the evidence in 2019 is more than suff-icient to sustain the conclusion that there continues to be a real risk of very substantial harm to Venables.
"My decision is in no way a reflection on the applicants themselves, for whom there is a profoundest sympathy."
Anyone who breaches the injunction faces prosecution for contempt of court.
Speaking outside court after the ruling, solicitor advocate Robin Makin, for the Bulgers, said: "The authorities seem to be hell-bent on protecting JV, regardless of the risk to others, and this has been a primary driving force behind Ralph and Jimmy's application."
Mr Makin said the Bulgers may consider pursuing a challenge at the Court of Appeal.
James Bulger was killed by Venables and Robert Thompson, both aged 10, after they snatched him from a shopping centre in Bootle, Merseyside.
In his opening remarks, the judge said the crime had shocked the UK, adding: "The family of young James Bulger were and are deserving of the greatest sympathy as the indirect victims of this most horrific crime."
Venables and Thompson were both granted life-long anonymity by a High Court judge and have lived under new identities since their release from custody.
The court order was amended after Venables was convicted of further offences in 2010 and last February.
He was jailed for three years and four months last year after admitting surfing the dark web for extreme child abuse images and possessing a "sickening" paedophile manual.
It was the second time he had been caught with such images.
When he was arrested he told police he was plagued by "stupid urges".
Lawyers for the Bulgers told the court that something had "gone wrong" with his rehabilitation and they, as victims, should be able to scrutinise his handling by the authorities.
They argued they are prevented from doing this because the terms of the injunction stop them from discussing details "widely available" online.
Mr Makin said they did not want the order to be discharged but wanted it to be varied so certain details could be revealed. These include Venables' identities and former addresses up to 2017 and the prisons where he has been detained.
No application was made regarding his current identity.
James' mother, Denise Fergus, was not involved in the proceedings and no challenge was brought against the anonymity granted to Thompson.
At the time of a preliminary hearing in the injunction challenge last year, Ms Fergus feared revealing the new name of Venables "could lead to vigilante action and innocent people being hurt".